Ethnic Profiling by the Police in France

Author: Nicoleta Mirza


The policy paper addresses, as the title suggests, ethnic profiling by the police in France. The paper contains an introduction to the topic and discusses the term “ethnic profiling” by citing definitions provided by international bodies. Furthermore, the policy paper includes an overview of the legal framework both on an international and national level. A separate chapter outlines police practice in terms of ethnic profiling. This chapter is significant as it illustrates the discriminatory police actions towards ethnic minorities. The paper concludes by highlighting the impact of ethnic profiling and by providing a set of recommendations to alleviate the issue.


Ethnic Profiling, Police, France, Discrimination.

To cite this article:

Nicoleta Mirza (2021), Ethnic Profiling by the Police in France, Europuls Policy Journal, 1:1, p. 82-89



Bock, P. (06 June 2020). France: What happened to Adama Traoré? Euronews. [accessed 05 June
Euronews (17 July 2020). France: Three police officers charged with manslaughter over chokehold

death. Euronews

European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) (29 June 2007). General Policy
Recommendation No 11 on Combating Racism and Racial Discrimination in Policing.

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) (2010). EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 4:
Police Stops and Minorities.
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) (2018). Being Black in the EU/Second European
Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey.
French Constitution of 4 October 1958 (4 October 1958). Available at:
Glaser, J. (2014). Suspect race: causes and consequences of racial profiling. New York: Oxford University
Press. p. 122, 124
Human Rights Watch (2012). “The root of Humiliation” Abusive Identity Check in France. [accessed 04 September 2021].
Human Rights Watch (2020a, June). “They Talk to Us Like We’re Dogs” Abusive Police Stops in France.

HRW: USA. ISBN: 978-1-62313-8318.

Human Rights Watch (2020b, June 18). Abusive Police Stops in France Target Black and Arab Children
as Young as 10.
Jeannerod, B. and Sunderland, J. (28 January 2021). Time to Stop Ethnic Profiling in France, Human
Rights Watch, [accessed 04
September 2021].
McNeeley, S., & Grothoff, G. (2016). A Multilevel Examination of the Relationship Between Racial
Tension and Attitudes Toward the Police. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(3), 383–401.
Open Society Foundations (2009). Executive Summary and Recommendations. In Profiling
Minorities: A Study of Stop-and-Search Practices in Paris (pp. 9–14). Open Society Foundations.
Open Society Foundations (n.d.). What is Ethnic Profiling? [accessed 04 September

The French Code of Criminal Procedure (CCP). Article 78-2
UN General Assembly (10 December 1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 217 A (III).
available at:
UN General Assembly (16 December 1966). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
United Nations, Treaty Series. vol. 999, p. 171, available at: [accessed 21 August 2021].
UN General Assembly (21 December 1965). International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Racial Discrimination. United Nations, Treaty Series. vol. 660, p. 195, available at:
UN Human Rights Council (20 April 2015). Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of
racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. A/HRC/29/46. available at:
Willsher, K. (15 January 2021). Two French police linked to violent arrest of black man may only get

reprimands. The Guardian.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *